Poverty is the shortage of money, food and shelter for an individual. Poverty is one of the characteristic features of the human society, because people are divided into rich and poor.
History[ edit ] Charles Bootha pioneering investigator of poverty in London at the turn of the 20th century, popularised the idea of a poverty line, a concept originally conceived by the London School Board. Based on data from leading nutritionists of the period, he calculated the cheapest price for the minimum calorific intake and nutritional balance necessary, before people got ill or lost weight.
He considered this amount to set his poverty line and concluded that Rowntree distinguished between primary povertythose lacking in income and secondary povertythose who had enough income, but spent it elsewhere Extreme poverty The term "absolute poverty" is also sometimes used as a synonym for extreme poverty.
Absolute poverty is the absence of enough resources to secure basic life necessities. According to a UN declaration that resulted from the World Summit on Social Development in Copenhagen inabsolute poverty is "a condition characterised by severe deprivation of basic human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education, and information.
It depends not only on income, but also on access to services. Body mass index must be above Toilets or latrines must be accessible in or near the home.
Treatment must be received for serious illnesses and pregnancy. Homes must have fewer than four people living in each room. Floors must not be made of soil, mud, or clay. Everyone must attend school or otherwise learn to read.
Everyone must have access to newspapers, radios, televisions, computers, or telephones at home. This item is undefined by Gordon, but normally is used to indicate the complete panoply of education, health, legal, social, and financial credit services.
Basic needs The basic needs approach is one of the major approaches to the measurement of absolute poverty in developing countries. It attempts to define the absolute minimum resources necessary for long-term physical well-beingusually in terms of consumption goods.
The poverty line is then defined as the amount of income required to satisfy those needs. It influenced the programmes and policies of major multilateral and bilateral development agencies, and was the precursor to the human development approach.
Different agencies use different lists. InGhai investigated the literature that criticized the basic needs approach. Critics argued that the basic needs approach lacked scientific rigour; it was consumption-oriented and antigrowth.
Some considered it to be "a recipe for perpetuating economic backwardness" and for giving the impression "that poverty elimination is all too easy".
In the development discourse, the basic needs model focuses on the measurement of what is believed to be an eradicable level of poverty.
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June See also: It is the "most useful measure for ascertaining poverty rates in wealthy developed nations".
For practical purposes, the problem of poverty in the industrialized nations today is a problem of relative poverty page 9.
History of the concept of relative poverty[ edit ] InAdam Smith argued that poverty is the inability to afford "not only the commodities which are indispensably necessary for the support of life, but whatever the custom of the country renders it indecent for creditable people, even of the lowest order, to be without.
The definition varies from place to place and time to time. In America as our standard of living rises, so does our idea of what is substandard. Those labelled as poor inwould have had "a higher standard of living than many labelled not poor" in Whelan of the Economic and Social Research Institute ESRI in Ireland explained that "poverty has to be seen in terms of the standard of living of the society in question.
Definitions of the poverty line do vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations.Poverty Essay Example & Outline Are you in High School, College, Masters, Bachelors or PhD and need assistance with your essay or research paper?
All you need is to buy a research paper written by a specialist in your academic field. Read this essay on Poverty. Come browse our large digital warehouse of free sample essays. Get the knowledge you need in order to pass your classes and more. Only at benjaminpohle.com". Poverty Research Papers are custom written on the sociology problem of Poverty.
The problem of poverty can be examined sociologically, politically or historically. Economics also plays a role in poverty. How to Write a Research Paper on Poverty.
The term "absolute poverty" is also sometimes used as a synonym for extreme benjaminpohle.comte poverty is the absence of enough resources to secure basic life necessities. A good term paper should illustrate the problem from all sides, research its cause and effect sides, analyze the reasons of poverty and its impact on all spheres of human life and the development of the human society in the whole.
Poverty in Pakistan Term Paper: Poverty is a serious problem of the human civilization and frankly speaking the problem can not be solved, because people have always been divided into the rich and the poor.
Pakistan is not an exception. Moreover, the country is considered to be one of the poorest countries in the world and there are many factors predetermining this fact.