Four perspectives on power in organizations

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Four perspectives on power in organizations

Leadership Theories Behavioral Theory This theory focuses especially on what highly effective leaders do. This theory is often preferred by educators because behaviors can rather easily be seen and duplicated. The major criticisms are that it doesn't help leaders know when to use certain behaviors and to share their motives for using those behaviors.

And how, you may ask, is this different from situational theory? Functional Theory This theory focuses especially on the behaviors needed to help a group to improve its effectiveness and achieve its goals.

Four perspectives on power in organizations

The theory identifies the specific functions needed by leadership for addressing certain situations. Functional Theory Great Man Theory This theory focuses on the traits and actions of those who are considered to be great leaders, as if they were born with those traits of leadership -- that leadership is a trait of those people, more than any skills that they had learned.

Great Man Theory of Leadership Path-Goal Theory This theory is about how leaders motivate followers to accomplish identified objectives. It postulates that effective leaders have the ability to improve the motivation of followers by clarifying the paths and removing obstacles to high performance and desired objectives.

The underlying beliefs of path-goal theory grounded in expectancy theory are that people will be more focused and motivated if they believe they are capable of high performance, believe their effort will result in desired outcomes, and believe their work is worthwhile.

It suggests that leaders must place the needs of followers, customers, and the community ahead of their own interests in order to be effective.

The idea of servant leadership has a significant amount of popularity within leadership circles — but it is difficult to describe it as a theory inasmuch as a set of beliefs and values that leaders are encouraged to embrace.

The assessment of these factors determines if a leader should use a more directive or supportive style. Skills theory by no means disavows the connection between inherited traits and the capacity to be an effective leader — it simply argues that learned skills, a developed style, and acquired knowledge, are the real keys to leadership performance.

It is of course the belief that skills theory is true that warrants all the effort and resources devoted to leadership training and development. That is, that certain inherited qualities, such as personality and cognitive ability, are what underlie effective leadership.

There have been hundreds of studies to determine the most important leadership traits, and while there is always going to be some disagreement, intelligence, sociability, and drive aka determination are consistently cited as key qualities.

This theory is often likened to the concept and practice of management and continues to be an extremely common component of many leadership models and organizational structures. It is often likened to the theory of charismatic leadership that espouses that leaders with certain qualities, such as confidence, extroversion, and clearly stated values, are best able to motivate followers.

The key in transformational leadership is for the leader to be attentive to the needs and motives of followers in an attempt to help them reach their maximum potential. In addition, transformational leadership typically describes how leaders can initiate, develop, and implement important changes in an organization.

This theory is often discussed in contrast with transactional leadership. What are the Differences that Make a Difference? However, some of the following models have also been mentioned as theories or styles.

As with the different theories, an acquaintance with the different models can further your understanding of leadership.These four management perspectives are believed to offer greater explanatory power than applying a single preordained theory or building a new theory directly from data analysis.

These frames can be used to spot the impact of intra-organizational factors and dynamics in implementation of public sector change in Pakistan and the role of public 5/5(3). Leadership theory and research in the new millennium: Current theoretical trends and changing perspectives.

Leadership theory and research in the new millennium: Current theoretical trends and changing perspectives. Achieving national strategic objectives requires the effective and efficient use of diplomatic, informational, military, and _____ instruments of national power.

economic _____ is the synchronization, coordination, and/or integration of governmental and nongovernmental activities with military operations.

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