She received a general education in local schools and some scientific training from her father. Inshe went to Paris to continue her studies at the Sorbonne where she obtained Licenciateships in Physics and the Mathematical Sciences. She met Pierre Curie, Professor in the School of Physics in and in the following year they were married.
Radioactivity Introduction Radioactivity is the spontaneous breakup of the nuclei of unstable atoms, which releases radiation in the form of fast-moving particles or high-energy electromagnetic waves gamma rays.
Since the discovery of radioactivity inradiation from radioactive substances and other sources has been used for medical, military, and technological purposes. Radioactive materials are used to image the inside of the human body, to treat cancer, to power nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants, to trace chemical reactions and drug metabolism, and to determine the ages of ancient organic materials and of Earth itself about 4.
Radiation, regardless of its source, has harmful health effects though in medical applications these may be outweighed by positive health effects: This article considers both radioactive elements and radiation from other sources, such as x rays. For decades, physicists had experimented with current flow between electrodes charged pieces of metal inside partially airless glass tubes cathode ray tubes, named for discharges from their positively charged electrodes, cathodes.
Much to his surprise, he discovered during an experiment with a cardboard-shrouded tube that, on the other side of his laboratory, a fluorescent-coated screen used to detect cathode rays began to glow.
Instead, he suspected that the fluorescence was caused by a new kind of ray. Sheets of paper were transparent to them; so were a thousand-page book and a piece of wood; aluminum, less so. The rays also blackened unexposed light-sensitive photographic plates, but thin plates of lead stopped them completely.
Flesh was mostly transparent to the rays, bones mostly opaque.
Industrial and commercial applications were also quickly found. The shoe-fitting fluoroscope, for example, which used x-rays to show the bones and soft tissues of a foot inside a shoe, became widely used in America, Europe, and Australia from the early s until the end of the s.
This was an early example of the tragic misapplication of a poorly-understood technology: Indeed, they did not even improve service in shoe-stores significantly, but served primarily as a gimmick to impress customers.
Children using the machine were exposed in a few seconds to as much radiation as a present-day industrial worker is allowed to receive in a year—and children are more vulnerable to radiation than adults. Moreover, the machines remained in use long after the harmful effects of radiation began to be understood, not being phased out in the United Kingdom until the mids.
Doctors soon discovered that when x rays were aimed at the human body, the skin often reddened in response, as if it had been sunburned. Since this was the same effect produced by ultraviolet light, which was used to treat various skin conditions, they assumed that x rays would have the same beneficial effects.
X ray treatments were quickly introduced. When hair loss was noticed after treatment with radiation, many physicians began to use x rays as a depilatory hair-removing treatment. Doctors also experimented with x ray therapy on cancer patients, and early reports of successful healing led to a veritable boom in x ray therapy in the first years of the twentieth century.
Unfortunately, the indiscriminate use of high-dose x rays probably caused far more cancer than it cured during this period. At first the burns, rashes, dermatitis, and ulceration associated with x ray use were ascribed to apparatus malfunction, but Elihu Thomson —an engineer working for an x-ray machine manufacturer, doubted this.
To prove that the x rays, and not his products, were responsible, he conducted a series of experiments on himself. By irradiating one of his fingers, he showed that x rays could produce severe, painful burns. He concluded that exposure to x rays beyond a certain limit would cause harm and warned his colleagues not to prolong exposure.
By experimenting on guinea pigs, other scientists showed that x rays could blind, burn, cause abortions, or even kill; in light of these findings, shields began to be used to protect both patients and x ray operators.Watch video · Nobel Prizes.
Marie Curie was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize and the first person—man or woman—to win the prestigious award twice. Marie Curie (November 7, - July 4, ) Polish Chemist and physicist, pioneer in the field of radioactivity, the first twice-honored Nobel laureate (and still the only one in two different sciences) and the first female professor at the University of Paris.
2. IRÈNE JOLIOT-CURIE, A NOBEL LAUREATE IN ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY INTRODUCTION This chapter provides a biographical profile of Irène Joliot-Curie, the daughter of Nobel laureates Marie and Pierre Curie, and details of her personal life and professional accomplishments. Growing up with internationally renowned parents.
A portrait of Marie Curie, taken about when she was awarded her first Nobel Prize.
Credit: Public domain Marie Curie was a physicist and chemist and a pioneer in the study of radiation. Marie Curie Biographical M arie Curie, née Maria Sklodowska, was born in Warsaw on November 7, , the daughter of a secondary-school teacher. She received a general education in local schools and some scientific training from her father.
Introduction Birth And Early Life Chr onology Marie Sklodowska Curie was a Polish-French physicist and chemist. She was a pioneer in the field of radioactivity, the first twice-honor ed Nobel laur eate and still today the only laureate in two different sciences, and the first female professor at the.